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Plastics & Rubber

Antioxidants

Virtually all polymeric materials undergo oxidation reactions. Oxidation can occur at every stage of the life cycle of a polymer, i.e. during manufacturing and storage of the material or during processing and end-use.

Typical manifestations of oxidation of polymers can be change of viscosity during processing, appearance, and loss of mechanical properties such as elongation, impact strength, tensile strength, and flexibility. Antioxidants protect polymers against oxidation by controlling molecular weight changes that lead to a loss of physical, mechanical, and optical properties.

Among other factors heat, light and mechanical stress can result in the degradation of the polymer.

Antioxidants interrupt the degradation processes in different ways, depending on their structure. The two major classifications are: chain terminating primary antioxidants and hydroperoxide decomposing secondary antioxidants.

Primary antioxidants react rapidly with free radicals and are, therefore, called "Radical Scavengers". The majority of primary antioxidants for polymers are sterically hindered phenols. 

Primary antioxidants:

Part of primary antioxidants, are aromatic amines, mainly used in carbon-black filled rubbers and some polyurethane applications. Irganox® 5057 is such an aromatic amine for polyol and rubber stabilization.

Secondary antioxidants, including phosphites and thioesters, react with hydroperoxides to yield non-radical products. They are particularly useful in synergistic combinations with primary antioxidants.

Phosphites are most effective during processing and protect both the polymer and the primary antioxidant.

Thioethers are useful in increasing the long-term thermal stability in conjunction with phenolic antioxidants. Irgafos® 168, Irgafos® 126, Irganox® PS 800 and Irganox® PS 802 are secondary antioxidants. 

In multifunctional stabilizers, several functions are combined in the same molecule: the most widely used combination are sterically hindered phenols with sulfur substituents or sterically hindered phenols with copper chelating function (metal deactivators). Irganox® 1035, Irganox® 565, Irganox® 1520 L, Irganox® MD 1024 are examples of multifunctional additives.

A third class of antioxidants are the radical scavengers. Scavenging the radicals immediately stops the degradation. They are mainly used for extrusion processing. Irganox® E 201 and the blend Irgastab® FS 301 belong to this class of antioxidants.

A pack of prerequisites and challenges

Disposable and durable packaging carry a variety of requirements, ranging from ease of processing, economical efficiency to food contact compliance and stunning aesthetics.

Benefit Processing & thermal stabilizers Light stabilizers Clarifiers
Bottles PO

Irganox® B 215, B 225, B 561, 1010

Irgafos® 168

Tinuvin® 326 Irgaclear® XT 386
Bottles PET

Irganox® B 561

Irgafos® 126, 168

Tinuvin® 234  

Benefit Processing & thermal stabilizers Light stabilizers Nucleators & antistatic agent
Caps

Irganox® B 215, B 561, 1010

Irgafos® 168

Tinuvin® 326

Chimassorb® 2020

Irgastab® NA 287

Irgaclear® XT 386

Benefit Processing & thermal stabilizers Light stabilizers Nucleators & antistatic agent
PP and PE

Irganox® B 215, B 900, 1010, 1076, E 201

Irgafos® 168

Irgastab® 301

Irgastab® XT 500

Chimassorb® 2020

Tinuvin® 326

Irgaclear® XT 386 

Irgastab® NA 287

 

Irgastat® P

Benefit Processing & thermal stabilizers Light stabilizers Nucleators & antistatic agent
PP and HDPE

Irganox® B 215, B 225, B 561, 1010

Irgafos® 168

Chimassorb® 2020 

Tinuvin® 326 

Uvinul® 4050 (PP-food) 

Tinuvin® 783

Irgastab® NA 287

 

Irgastat® P

Benefit Processing & thermal stabilizers Light stabilizers Antistatic agent
FIBC - PP

Irganox® B 215

Irganox® B 225

Tinuvin® 791

Tinuvin® 783

Tinuvin® XT 55

Chimassorb® 2020

Uvinul® 4050

Irgastat® P

IBC - HDPE

Irganox® B 561

Irganox® B 215

Tinuvin® 783

Chimassorb® 2020

Tinuvin® 326

Irgastat® P
FFS - (L)LDPE

Irganox® B 215

Irganox® B 900

Tinuvin® 783

Chimassorb® 2020

Tinuvin® 326 

Irgastat® P
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